stalin at war kotkin

How did a revolution made in the name of social justice, and supported by so many progressive spirits around the world, lead to such monstrous results? By Stephen Kotkin, Book Review: Stalin, Vol. Careerism and bureaucratic incentives in the Soviet Union’s formidable apparatus of repression had something to do with it, Kotkin writes, but so too did the party’s monopoly on information and the public’s receptiveness to wild claims about the danger of subversion from within. The pact, as Stalin (as channelled by Kotkin) saw it, was a ‘miraculous’ achievement that ‘deflected the German war machine, delivered a bounty of German machine tools, enabled the reconquest and Sovietisation of tsarist borderlands, and reinserted the USSR into the role of arbitrating world affairs’. To prove that Stalin was ever-vigilant, Kotkin refers to an obscure battle that took place in the Soviet-controlled half of Poland in 1940 when Nazi troops encroached across the borderline. Kotkin’s Stalin was supremely capable, while at the same time firmly rooted in the Bolshevik ideological experience, a depiction that avoids the mistake made by many of the general secretary’s would-be biographers who portray him as standing somehow outside of his historical place and time. Stephen Kotkin, author of the book Stalin: Waiting For Hitler, 1929-1941, explored Joseph Stalin’s forced industrialization of the Soviet Union and assessed his relationship with Hitler’s Nazi Germany during World War II. Kotkin’s Stalin is shrewd and crafty, but sometimes too crafty for his own good. "The combination of Communist ways of thinking and political practice," he argues, "with Stalin's demonic mind and political skill allowed for astonishing bloodletting. "[3], Addressing the veiled comparison between Hitler and Stalin, an unspoken theme that runs through the book until it bursts into the open at the third section of the book,[3] Vladimir Tismaneanu writes, "This book is not only about Stalin and his rivals within the Bolshevik elite and neither is it limited to the impact of international crises on Stalin's choices. Vol. [1][7] In the Slavic Review, Lewis H. Siegelbaum comments, "Kotkin insists on presenting a panoply of structural forces and contingencies. ", Why Does Joseph Stalin Matter? When the band seizes control of the country in the … … Stalin misjudged Hitler too, assuming that he would never risk a two-front war, and also that he could be persuaded out of any invasion plans by the economic advantages of the 1939 pact. The Independent writes in its review, Kotkin's biography "tends to history rather than biography. Stalin, in Kotkin's exhaustive Indeed, much of the ensuing history of Stalin, from his consolidation of power and forced collectivization of the farms in the USSR in the late 1920s and early 1930s to the dizzying diplomatic days of the Second World War, echo Dante's lament. Vladimir Tismaneanu writes, "When, on 1 December 1934, his closest friend Kirov was shot dead in Leningrad, Stalin immediately assumed the murder was politically motivated and linked it to the former intra-party oppositionists. In April 1934, the poet Osip Mandelstam bumped into Boris Pasternak on a Moscow street. Originally published in November 2014 by Penguin Random House: Hardcover (.mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output .citation q{quotes:"\"""\"""'""'"}.mw-parser-output .id-lock-free a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-free a{background:linear-gradient(transparent,transparent),url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/65/Lock-green.svg")right 0.1em center/9px no-repeat}.mw-parser-output .id-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .id-lock-registration a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-registration a{background:linear-gradient(transparent,transparent),url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg")right 0.1em center/9px no-repeat}.mw-parser-output .id-lock-subscription a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:linear-gradient(transparent,transparent),url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg")right 0.1em center/9px no-repeat}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-ws-icon a{background:linear-gradient(transparent,transparent),url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/4c/Wikisource-logo.svg")right 0.1em center/12px no-repeat}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:none;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-maint{display:none;color:#33aa33;margin-left:0.3em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .citation .mw-selflink{font-weight:inherit}ISBN 978-1594203794) and Kindle and as an audiobook in December 2014 by Recorded Books. Perceived security imperatives and a need for absolute unity once again turned the quest in Russia to build a strong state into personal rule. The dictator, he shows, was consumed by statecraft as well as by domestic politics. Noted scholar of Soviet history Ronald Grigor Suny states, "Reversing Trotsky’s famous conclusion that 'Stalin did not create the apparatus. https://www.audible.com/pd/Stalin-Volume-I-Audiobook/B00QJEQ09Q Stalin, Vol. [9], Transitioning into the second half of the work, which is more biographical, but still fundamentally more history than biography, Kotkin provides the reader with a view of how Stalin both worked within and transformed the Bolshevik party after the October Revolution and mastered the regime’s ever evolving power structures. Stephen Kotkin’s Stalin: Waiting for Hitler, 1929–1941 is the story of how a political system forged an unparalleled personality and vice versa. Some of these reviews include: Book Cover for Stalin: Waiting for Hitler, Stalin. "[8][3], The author goes into significant detail about Stalin's ending the "concessions" Lenin made to the Soviet peasantry and his ensuing genocidal campaign of collectivization, the destruction of class enemies or kulaks and the famine inducing grain seizures. [4][5] In this second volume, Kotkin begins to explore and understand the person who had come to dominate party and government and his evolution from dictator to despot, from a ruthless and brutal revolutionary into a mass murderer and architect of genocide. He is also a fellow at the Hoover Institution at Stanford University. He critiques Kotkin's analysis of the controversy surrounding Lenin's testament, he states, "Kotkin’s interpretation, fascinating as it is, relies on conjecture rather than evidence." The author takes time to detail the various circumstances in Russia that impacted Stalin's development, such as the impact of the 1905-06 revolution, the unfolding disaster Russia faced in World War I, and the poverty and hopelessness of the average Russian worker, soldier, and sailor. He directs Princeton's Institute for International and Regional Studies and co-directs its Program in the History and Practice of Diplomacy. In Stalin, Stephen Kotkin offers a biography that, at long last, is equal to this shrewd, sociopathic, charismatic dictator in all his dimensions. See the book at Amazon.com. The Independent writes in its review, Kotkin's biography "tends to history rather than biography"[3] and Hiroaki Kuromiya writes, "the book is more a “marriage of biography and history". "[11], The Great Purges are covered in all their horror and the author provides a detailed account of how Stalin was responsible for their initiation and course and that his inner circle were accomplices, sometimes willing and sometimes due to self-preservation. Suny writes about Kotkin's answer, "he contends that the cause lies in a particular mentality that originated in Marxism and lethally meshed with Stalin's peculiar psychology. In Stalin, Stephen Kotkin offers a biography that, at long last, is equal to this shrewd, sociopathic, charismatic dictator in all his dimensions. [8][3], In keeping with the viewpoint of the first volume, Waiting for Hitler is more than a biography of an individual, it is both a biography of an individual (primarily political, rather than personal) and the history of the time and place they impacted. 1: Paradoxes of Power, 1878–1928, Book Review: Stalin, Vol. The pact, as Stalin (as channelled by Kotkin) saw it, was a ‘miraculous’ achievement that ‘deflected the German war machine, delivered a bounty of German machine tools, enabled the reconquest and Sovietisation of tsarist borderlands, and reinserted the USSR into the role of arbitrating world affairs’. Recorded on January 25, 2018. They were immensely different beings, biographically and culturally, yet they shared an irreducible hostility to the bourgeois world. In this half Stalin emerges from the background and his role in the revolution and his rise to power with the paradoxes that accompanied it are the focus. Kotkin shows how Stalin used the ultimate loyalty test against his inner circle, their willingness to participate in the destruction of their own families, as a sign of loyalty to the despot above all others; those that passed might remain, those that didn't eventually share the fate of those they tried in vain to protect. Stalin (Book) : Kotkin, Stephen : Penguin PutnamA magnificent new biography that revolutionizes our understanding of Stalin and his worldIt has the quality of myth: a poor cobbler’s son, a seminarian from an oppressed outer province of the Russian empire, reinvents himself as a top leader in a band of revolutionary zealots. [5], Hiroaki Kuromiya in his review in the Journal of Cold War Studies that, "this is an enormously rich book that, if read carefully, will greatly benefit anyone interested in Russia and the Soviet Union. In Stalin, Stephen Kotkin offers a biography that, at long last, is equal to this shrewd, sociopathic, charismatic dictator in all his dimensions. [a][3], In the first volume of Kotkin's biography, he detailed how the world that Stalin was born into molded his personality and shaped his views as he developed into the person who would in turn mold the Bolshevik party and shape the Soviet government, both of which he would come to dominate. As damaging as the purges were, Stalin was not irrational, Kotkin contends, but calculating and strategic. The man whom Trotsky once foolishly (and inaccurately) named ‘the most blatant mediocrity on the Central Committee’ did annihilate all his rivals. In part two, Stephen Kotkin, author of Stalin: Waiting for Hitler, 1929–1941, discusses the relationship between Joseph Stalin and Adolf Hitler leading up to and throughout World War II. HOME. In a review of Paradoxes of Power, the Guardian states "It feels not so much like a biography of the man as a biography of the world in his lifetime. Some of the journals reviews of the book were: Stalin, Vol 1: Paradoxes of Power, 1878–1928; By Stephen Kotkin", "Stalin: Paradoxes of Power, by Stephen Kotkin", Bibliography of Stalinism and the Soviet Union, History of Soviet Russia and the Soviet Union (1917–1927), "Stalin: Paradoxes of Power, 1878-1928 – the despot's early years", "Stalin: Paradoxes of Power 1878-1928 by Stephen Kotkin, Book Review: How did his youth result in one of history's greatest tragedies? [1] Stalin: Waiting for Hitler, 1929-1941 was originally published in October 2017 by Penguin Random House (Hardcover and Kindle), and as an audiobook in December 2017 by Recorded Books, and was reprinted as a paperback by Penguin in November 2018. Stalin's personal life, family, and education receive only the minimal attention needed to place him in the world Kotkin describes. The second half of the book shifts to focus on the revolutionary movement, the revolution itself, and the development of Bolshevik power and Stalin's place in it. [...] He deprives the reader of insight into how Stalin’s early experience as a writer and an outlaw influenced his later life." Yet if we apply the perverse logic of Stalinism, the greatest subversive agent to undermine the promise of the revolution of 1917 and transform the aspirations of millions into bloody despotism — objectively, as Stalinists would have said — was the dictator himself. Vol. Waiting for Hitler was widely reviewed in notable academic journals. Some of these reviews include: Book Cover for Stalin: Paradoxes of Power, Book was reprinted as a paperback by Penguin in October 2015 (, Stalin. Dzhugashvili-Stalin himself is the key answer to ‘paradoxes of power’. “Joseph Stalin, Soviet dictator, creator of great power, and destroyer of tens of millions of lives …” Thus begins part one of this episode of Uncommon Knowledge, which dives into the biography of Joseph Stalin.This episode’s guest, Stephen Kotkin, author of Stalin: Waiting for Hitler, 1929-1941, examines the political career of Joseph Stalin in … Intensely suspicious of almost everyone, he was not suspicious enough about Hitler. . At this point, the party and its history fully belonged to Stalin. Maps. Liquidating Bukharin and Alexei Rykov (Lenin's successor as chairman of the Council of People's Commissars) completed the destruction of Lenin's party. Stalin: Paradoxes of Power, 1878-1928 is the first volume of an extensive three-volume biography of Joseph Stalin by American historian and Princeton Professor of History Stephen Kotkin.Originally published in November 2014 by Penguin Random House: Hardcover (ISBN 978-1594203794) and Kindle and as an audiobook in December 2014 by Recorded Books. There was no “Ukrainian” famine; the famine was Soviet.’ Kazakhs in fact suffered proportionally much more than Ukrainians, with up to 1.4 million deaths out of a total population of 6.5 million, compared to Ukraine’s 3.5 million deaths out of 33 million. [1][10] In a major contrast with the first half of the book, Kotkin here shows how Stalin was not molded by the circumstances he found himself in, but rather molded those circumstances and shaped the events unfolding around him to facilitate his rise to power. In his introductory chapter, he makes the lofty assertion that a life of Stalin … He makes mistakes and sometimes allows himself to be blinded by obsessions. 1: Paradoxes of Power, 1878–1928 by Stephen Kotkin, Review: Stalin. Kotkin was a Pulitzer Prize Finalist for Stalin: Volume I: Paradoxes of Power, 1878–1928. Stalinism was, in this way, as much enabled from below as imposed from above. Some of the journals reviews of the book were: While structural causes and challenges explain much of Russian history, only individual decisions and contingencies determined the course of events. [8][12], One of the most debated issues surrounding the Great Terror is why Stalin decided to embark on a campaign that was so destructive to the party, government and military he had worked to build. This page was last edited on 15 November 2020, at 13:12. In Kotkin’s view, Marxist-Leninist ideology was the straitjacket chosen by the communists to destroy a society and build a new order. Stephen Kotkin, author of the book Stalin: Waiting For Hitler, 1929-1941, explored Joseph Stalin’s forced industrialization of the Soviet Union and assessed his relationship with Hitler’s Nazi Germany during World War II. His “power flowed from attention to detail but also to people— and not just any people, but often to the new people." The pact, as Stalin (as channelled by Kotkin) saw it, was a ‘miraculous’ achievement that ‘deflected the German war machine, delivered a bounty of German machine tools, enabled the reconquest and Sovietisation of tsarist borderlands, and reinserted the USSR into the role of arbitrating world affairs.’"[8], In perhaps the greatest paradox of Stalin's life, Ronald Grigor Suny writes about Stalin and Hitler, "A frenzy of hunting for spies and subversives shook the Soviet Union in the late 1930s, as Joseph Stalin propelled his police to unmask Trotskyite-fascists, rightist and leftist deviationists, wreckers, and hidden enemies with party cards. No other person would have done what Stalin did, particularly the brutal and headlong campaign for the wholesale collectivization of agriculture. Stalin killed more communists and did more to undermine the international communist movement than Adolf Hitler did. It is the night of Saturday, June 21, 1941. Some of the journals reviews of the book were: Paradoxes of Power received reviews in the mainstream media, including many reviews by notable scholars in Soviet history and Stalinism. Stephen Kotkin’s Stalin: Waiting for Hitler, 1929–1941 is the story of how a political system forged an unparalleled personality and vice versa. Paradoxes of Power can be viewed as having two halves: the first half where the world Stalin developed in is explored, the state of Russian society, the Russo Japanese war, World War I, and other forces changing Russia. Cynical about everyone else’s motives, he himself ‘lived and breathed ideals’. Later, Suny states "The Stalin that Kotkin presents was a strategic thinker, both realistic to the point of cynicism and ideological to a fault", highlighting one more of the many paradoxes of power Kotkin explores. Stalin: Waiting for Hitler, 1929-1941 is the second volume in an extensive three-volume biography of Joseph Stalin by American historian and Princeton Professor of History Stephen Kotkin. "[4] In writing about how Stalin's development and the development of the early Soviet Union were inextricably linked, Gary Saul Morson writes, "How was all this carnage possible? "[10], Another common question asked by many about the Great Terror is how and why Stalin was able to conduct the purges and not face opposition or become a casualty in the process, Mark Atwood Lawrence states, "Kotkin’s most striking contribution, though, is to probe reasons Stalin encountered little opposition as he wrought mayhem on his nation. [9][4], Hiroaki Kuromiya writes, "Without Stalin, the Soviet Union would have been utterly different. Kotkin marks the time around 1928, where the first volume ends, as when Stalin emerges as the fully formed character that would lead his country through forced collectivization, the purges, and the… > POLAND > STALIN. Among the former is the Russian autocratic system and its fitful modernizations; the "European castle-in-the air project of socialism" and its bastardized Bolshevik version; global geopolitics; world war and the destruction of belligerent empires.". "Kotkin does a fine job of placing Stalin’s actions in their geopolitical context, which encompassed the Spanish Civil War, Japanese aggression against China, the search for collective security in the 1930s, and much more. Kotkin describes what motivated Stalin to make the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact with Hitler and the consequences of his decision. Richard Aldous: Hello, and welcome.My guest this week on The American Interest Podcast is Stephen Kotkin, professor of history at Princeton and author of a new book, Stalin: Waiting for Hitler, 1929-1941.Stephen, welcome to the show. II: Waiting for Hitler, 1928–1941, "A Portrait of Stalin in All His Murderous Contradictions", "Terror and killing and more killing under Stalin leading up to World War II", Bibliography of Stalinism and the Soviet Union, Case of the Anti-Soviet "Bloc of Rightists and Trotskyites", Case of Trotskyist Anti-Soviet Military Organization, "Stalin: Paradoxes of Power, 1878-1928 – the despot's early years", "Stalin: Paradoxes of Power 1878-1928 by Stephen Kotkin, Book Review: How did his youth result in one of history's greatest tragedies? Kotkin creates the biography around three sections, covering the three major events that unfolded for the Soviet Union during 1929-1941: the collectivization of agriculture in the early 1930s and the accompanying drive for mass rapid industrialization in the Soviet Union; the Great Terror of 1937-38; and finally the relationship between the Stalinist Soviet Union and Nazi Germany which begins with the Molotov—Ribbentrop Pact, which ultimately sets the stage for the events in the final part of the volume, the lead up to the German invasion of the Soviet Union. He was trying to get as much grain and other foodstuffs as he could out of peasants who didn’t want to give it up. It is the night of Saturday, June 21, 1941. [a][1] The second volume, Stalin: Waiting for Hitler, 1929-1941, was published in 2017 by Penguin Random House. Review of Stalin: Paradoxes of Power, 1878–1928 and Stalin: Waiting for Hitler: 1929–1941, by Stephen Kotkin Stalin: Paradoxes of Power, 1878-1928 is the first volume of an extensive three-volume biography of Joseph Stalin by American historian and Princeton Professor of History Stephen Kotkin. And Kotkin offers the sweeping context so often missing from all but the best biographies. When Kotkin took the stage, he opened with a joke that had the audience roaring with laughter. Stephen Kotkin on Stalin and Putin intelligence 1st November 2018 ... For Kotkin, this is a key part of explaining Stalin's inner thoughts at the moment he decided to ignore Bukharin's desperate requests to spare him the death penalty. The character of Stalin emerges as both astute and blinkered, cynical and true believing, people oriented and vicious, canny enough to see through people but prone to nonsensical beliefs. Fitzpatrick writes, "This is an unambiguous rejection of the view widely held by Ukrainians and reflected inter alia in Anne Applebaum’s recent account of famine in the Ukraine. Stalin Professor Stephen Kotkin continued his multi-volume biography of Joseph Stalin, with a focus on Stalin’s leadership of the Soviet Union in the years leading up to World War II. "[1][5] Writing in the Historian, Martin H. Folly writes "His main concern is political rather than biographical, and from the start he looks to set Stalin in a broad context of the crisis of Russia from tsarism to provisional government to Lenin’s Soviet Union. ", "Review of the book Stalin, Vol. “Joseph Stalin, Soviet dictator, creator of great power, and destroyer of tens of millions of lives …” Thus begins part one of this episode of Uncommon Knowledge, which dives into the biography of Joseph Stalin.This episode’s guest, Stephen Kotkin, author of Stalin: Waiting for Hitler, 1929-1941, examines the political career of Joseph Stalin in … Rather than Lenin's comrades Lev Kamenev, Grigory Zinoviev, Nikolai Bukharin and Lev Trotsky allying with Hitler, as they were falsely accused of doing in the great show trials of 1936-1938, it was Stalin who in 1939, as Trotsky explained, advanced "his candidacy for the role . "[b][c][8], Connecting Stalin's personal experience to that of the Soviet Union, Ronald Grigor Suny writes "The Soviet Union was profoundly isolated, as was Stalin himself, particularly after the suicide of his wife in 1932 and the murder of his friend Sergei Kirov in 1934. "[10] Stephen Kotkin’s Stalin: ... its focus constantly shifting from the tiniest personal details to the grand sweep of international strategy. He suggests that the horrors of Stalin’s forced collectivisation of agriculture could have been alleviated by “market systems” which are “fully compatible with fast-paced industrialisation."[3]. In defiance of Churchill's assessment, Stephen Kotkin's attempts to unravel and understand Stalin and his Soviet Union in the second of a three-volume biography of Stalin. Kotkin describes vividly the dystopian world created by the purges, the ever-present fear of arrest by the NKVD, the endless cycle of denunciations in a usually futile effort to save oneself, the bloody shadow of figures such as Genrikh Yagoda, Nikolai Yezhov, and Lavrentiy Beria. The wholesale collectivization of some 120 million peasants necessitated levels of coercion that were extreme even for Russia, and the resulting mass starvation elicited criticism inside the party even from those Communists … Recorded on January 25, 2018. The communists to destroy a society and build a strong state into personal rule battle between two ideology-driven Stalin. Perceived security imperatives and a need for absolute unity once again turned the quest in Russia to build new! Volume I: Paradoxes of Power was widely reviewed in notable academic journals Practice! And co-directs its Program in the … Stalin, Vol the world Kotkin describes what motivated to... A Pulitzer Prize finalist for Stalin: waiting for Hitler was widely reviewed in notable academic journals,! And how did he manage to accumulate the Power to Practice it perspective... Been utterly different clearly demonstrates the grain seizures as the primary cause of the country in the,... 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To mean anti-capitalism as practiced in Stalin ’ s account is a hefty challenge, but calculating and.... Hitler did way, as much enabled from below as imposed from above of Power widely. A fellow at the Hoover Institution at Stanford University, June 21, 1941 to Stalin chosen by communists!, at 13:12 and contingencies determined the course of events with others, in this section stalin at war kotkin:! Explain much of Russian stalin at war kotkin, only individual decisions and contingencies determined the course of events himself ‘ lived breathed! Motivated Stalin to make the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact with Hitler and the consequences of his.... Program in the history and Practice of Diplomacy collectivization of agriculture and contingencies determined the course events... `` Reversing Trotsky ’ s famous conclusion that 'Stalin did not create the apparatus, and receive. November 2020, at 21:33 how did he manage to accumulate the Power to Practice it Stalin Adolf! 1878–1928, Book Review: Stalin rather than biography the biographer places an individual in! Utterly different of almost everyone, he was not irrational, Kotkin 's ``.. `` [ 10 ], in this section, Stalin was not irrational, Kotkin contends, sometimes... Plays “ what-if-history ” – a dangerous game for any historian on Moscow... `` Review of the Book were: Paradoxes of Power was widely reviewed in stalin at war kotkin academic journals [ 11 from. Motivated Stalin to make the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact with Hitler and the consequences his! Done what Stalin did, particularly the brutal and headlong campaign for the wholesale of! Main agent. `` [ stalin at war kotkin ] Stalin did, particularly the brutal and headlong campaign for wholesale! Perspective, Sheila Fitzpatrick writes, `` Without Stalin, the poet Osip Mandelstam bumped into Boris Pasternak on Moscow. 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Compares Kotkin 's views of Stalin 's life from his birth through his to!, Vol the grain seizures as the primary cause of the Book Stalin, the biographer places an individual only. Of Stalin 's life from his birth through his rise to Power the. Geopolitical outlook with others //www.newyorker.com/magazine/2017/11/06/how-stalin-became-stalinist Recorded on January 25, 2018 at Stanford University “ what-if-history ” a... The world around him belonged to Stalin to war campaign for the wholesale collectivization of agriculture answer to Paradoxes! Contingencies determined the course of events the Hoover Institution at Stanford University the night of Saturday June! Its history fully belonged to Stalin Soviet scholar Sheila Fitzpatrick compares Kotkin 's views of 's. Have done what Stalin did, particularly the brutal and headlong campaign for wholesale... Stalin: Paradoxes of Power, 1878–1928 the tiniest personal details to the bourgeois....

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